Whenever we discuss feeding birds in a backyard setting invariably the discussion centers around offering birds seeds, suet, and other offerings in feeders hung outside our homes. While supplemental feeding is important, the foods provided by native plants is often far more valuable to our feathered neighbors. One of these native food plants is the common pokeweed.
One of the reasons it is rarely mentioned is because few people are inclined to plant pokeweed in a garden. Although it possesses colorful stems and berries, I suspect most homeowners deem this large, gangly perennial plant unworthy of growing alongside a bed of zinnias, or towering above their roses. However, the plant’s reputation of being a weed belies its value as a plant that produces food relished by a host of birds.
For this reason, my wife and I permit pokeberries to grow in idle spots around the perimeter of our property. These are places we where we allow native vegetation to flourish. These areas are occasionally mowed to prevent the intrusion of tree saplings. We also remove any foreign invasive plants that happen to appear.
If you decide to encourage pokeweed plants to grow in an idle corner of your property, you will have the opportunity to view scores of hungry birds dining on plant’s dark purple, juicy berries. The birds you are most likely to see are year-round residents such as northern mockingbirds, brown thrashers, eastern bluebirds, European starlings, mourning doves, American crows, red-bellied woodpeckers, and northern cardinals. In preparation for, and during their fall migrations, birds that nest here and elsewhere in North America, also gobble up pokeberries to help fuel their hazardous journey to their wintering grounds. The list of neotropical migrants that dine on pokeberries includes the gray catbird, eastern kingbird, wood thrush, Swainson’s thrush, veery, summer tanager, and hooded warbler. Later when the migratory birds that winter in the Peach state arrive, they rarely pass up the opportunity to feed on what pokeberries remain. These birds include the likes of the hermit thrush, cedar waxwing as well as fox and white-throated sparrows.
Chances are you have never seen some of these birds in your backyard. With that in mind, if you want to enhance your chances of catching glimpses of these birds without leaving the confines or your property, while providing a nutrient-rich source of food for birds and other wildlife, find a place for common pokeweed on your land.
You cannot help but notice the American beautyberry in late summer and fall. Although this deciduous shrub is inconspicuous throughout most of the year, when its fruits are ripe, they are impossible to ignore.
The beautyberry’s fruits (actually drupes) are unlike anything else that you might find displayed in your backyard and beyond. The plant’s showy fruits appear in clusters around the multitude of stems that characterize this native plant. The berries are round and bright violet. The color is so unique, I cannot think of another plant that produces similar fruit.
I have a number of American beautyberries growing in my yard. Since I did not transplant all of them, I am certain they were planted by any one of a number of birds the relish their fruit as much as I enjoy gazing at the berries. I will never know which of my avian neighbors planted these shrubs since more than 40 species of birds gobble up the fruit. The list of potential culprits includes the northern mockingbird, northern cardinal, gray catbird, brown thrasher, northern bobwhite, eastern towhee, and American robin.
When given a chance, the opossum, armadillo, raccoon, and others will also eat their share of the gaudy berry-like fruits.
The American beautyberry will grow in partial shade and full sun. It grows in a wide range of soil types and does not require a lot of water; however, it does best in moist soil.
I learned long ago, there is no perfect plant. Such is the case with the American beautyberry. This hardy plant has a tendency to spread even without the assistance of my wildlife neighbors.
If you do not already have American beautyberry growing in your yard, you might want to try it. It will add to the plant diversity of your wildlife haven, provide food to the wildlife living in your backyard, and add a swash of unique color to your landscape.
Most homeowners are familiar with the coral honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens). This honeysuckle is often referred to as the “good” honeysuckle. It is so named because folks want to make sure it is not confused with the highly invasive Japanese honeysuckle.
Coral honeysuckle is a native evergreen vine that bears long, bright red tubular-shaped flowers throughout much of the year. These nectar-laden flowers are visited by ruby-throated hummingbirds and butterflies such as the cloudless sulphur.
While this hardy vine does not produce an abundance of berries, they sometimes provide much needed food during times when berries are often scarce such as during late fall and winter.
The Grancy Graybeard, also known as the fringe tree, grandfather graybeard, snow flower tree, old man’s beard and a number of other colorful names is a perfect addition to both large and small yards across the state.
The grancy graybeard is one of the last flowering trees to bloom each spring in the Peach State. For the past couple of weeks, my wife and I have been enjoying both the tree’s strikingly beautiful blossoms and aroma produced by a myriad of flowers.
This small native tree grows only ten to thirty feet tall. I personally have never seen one more than fifteen feet tall.
Before the tree’s oblong leaves appear, a riot of snow-white flowers erupt on its bare branches. This startlingly beautiful floral show is created by literally thousands of slender flowers (up to an inch long and 1/16th of an inch wide). Oddly, the male flowers are larger than the female blooms.
If that isn’t enough to catch your attention, the delicate, sweet, clean perfume given off by these flowers will. When in full bloom, the delicate sweet scent of the blossoms will waft many yards away from the tree.
These unique blooms attract nectar feeders such as small beetles, bees and others.
Later in the year female trees, bear a crop of blackish-blue fruit that are gobbled up by mockingbirds, cardinals, blue jays and other wildlife.
In addition, this demure tree is a host plant for both rustic and laurel sphinx moths.
This tree requires little, if any care. Although it does best in moist, rich soils, once established it will grow in dry areas too. The tree’s ability to live in both partial shade and full sun is another plus.
With that in mind, I hope you will consider adding it to your landscape. This tree is definitely a keeper.
The sweetgum is a common forest and backyard tree throughout Georgia. This valuable tree provides us with striking fall color, is a host plant for 30 species of butterflies and moths, produces food for a broad spectrum of wildlife ranging from American goldfinches and wood ducks to white tailed deer, and is also used to make medicine, plywood, furniture, and veneer.
However, would you believe that sweetgum logs were once employed as cannons during the Civil War?
Cannon barrels fashioned from sweetgum logs were not widely used. However, historians have reported that in 1865 the thirty-third Missouri Volunteers manned a battery of seven sweetgum log cannons at Spanish Fort, Alabama; they were nicknamed The Sweetgum Battery. Six of the cannons fired six-pound shells. The other cannon shot a twelve-pounder. It has been said that these cannons could accurately strike targets 500-600 yards away.
It is true, the fruit and berries of the plant we love to hate are great fall and winter foods for a number of our favorite backyard birds including: the eastern bluebird, gray catbird, Carolina chickadee, American crow, northern flicker, dark-eyed junco, eastern phoebe, sparrows (fox, white-crowned, and white-throated), brown thrasher, hermit thrush, tufted titmouse, cedar waxwing, woodpeckers (downy, hairy, pileated, and red-bellied), and Carolina wren.
Throughout most of the year, the American beautyberry is a native shrub that goes unnoticed. However, from the moment its fruits begin to ripen in late summer, birds and humans find them impossible to ignore.
The American beautyberry’s gaudy, bright lavender-colored fruit seemingly advertise themselves to resident and migratory birds alike. When migrating songbirds stop and begin looking for food to fuel their fall migration, being able to find nutritious food quickly is extremely important. This enables the birds to expend a minimum amount of energy and time before resuming their southward trek.
Since beautyberries will remain on the shrub well into winter, they also provide food for birds when it is often scarce.
Beautyberries are eaten by a number of our backyard favorites such as American Robins, Baltimore Orioles, Northern Mockingbirds, Eastern Towhees, Wood Thrushes, Northern Cardinals, Gray Catbirds, and Brown Thrashers.
In exchange for serving as a source of food for birds, the plants have their seeds scattered widely when the feathered diners expel them in their droppings.
In my yard, mockingbirds vigorously defend fruit-laden American beautyberry plants from other birds. Late one summer, two Baltimore Orioles landed on a hummingbird feeder hanging outside my office. Their sudden appearance provided me with a perfect opportunity to photograph these handsome birds. However, just as I was about to snap my first picture, a mockingbird, that had been defending a nearby beautyberry bush, swooped down on the orioles and scared them away.
In backyard settings, American beautyberries can be planted in a shrubby border or as an occasional shrub.
They can be grown in a wide range of soils, as well as in both partial shade and full sun. In addition, they require much less water than many ornamental plants. In my yard, they are growing in sunny locations with their roots anchored in dry, hard Georgia red clay.
Most beautyberry plantings are established using containerized plants or pass-along plants obtained from a friend. Beautyberry plants can, however, be propagated from both cuttings and seeds.
Beautyberries typically grow four-feet tall in shade and eight-feet tall in full sun. Although it is not necessary to prune the plant, if pruning carried out in late winter, berry yields will be increased since berries are produced on new wood.
The plant’s attractive dark-green foliage turns yellow to reddish-purple in autumn.
The beautyberry’s small flowers are pale, lilac-colored. However, its unusual, brightly colored berries and pleasing fall foliage make it an attractive landscape planting. As such, if you are looking for wildlife food plant that will also provide a touch of unusual fall color, the American beautyberry may just be the ticket.