Like a growing number of other backyard wildlife enthusiasts I am incorporating native plants into my home landscape. To date, I have been pleased with native plants I have introduced that produce seeds, fruits, berries and/or nectar for my wildlife neighbors.  I wish I could say the same for two caterpillar host plants—passionflower and spicebush.  My problem with them is two of the butterflies that lay their eggs on them do so long before the plants can become established. 

       This problem first cropped up several years ago when I tried to grow passionflower in my yard.  After vainly trying to grow the plants from seeds, I planted young plants.  Much to my delight the plants did well and soon slender passionflower vines inched their way up a nearby fence. 

       One day when I went out to look at my rapidly growing vines I spotted a number of spike-covered orange and black gulf fritillary caterpillars munching on the vines’ tender leaves.  At first I was thrilled that gulf fritillaries were using my plants as hosts for their caterpillars.

       My delight soon changed to concern when it became the insatiable caterpillars quickly devoured every single leaf on the vines.  They then proceeded to eat the vines down to the ground.

       Although my crop of passionflower leaves was exhausted for that growing season, I was hoping the plants would come back the following year.

       The next spring I kept looking for the passionflower vines to emerge from the ground.  When this did not happen I realized the caterpillars had destroyed the plants the previous year.

       This problem resurfaced when I transplanted a healthy four-foot tall spicebush in my backyard last year.  Aided by frequent watering, the small shrub grew well. Much to my surprise, in 2017 I did not see a single spicebush swallowtail caterpillar on the plant.

       This spring the tree sprouted a meager crop of fresh green leaves. Eventually, I notice a number of folded-over leaf shelters on the leaves.  This was a sure sign tiny spicebush swallowtail caterpillars  were hiding beneath their green leaf shelters.  In a matter of days, these voracious caterpillars ate every single leaf on my spicebush.  I was hoping I was not facing a replay of my experience with passionflowers.

       My fear that caterpillars had once again destroyed a host plant in my yard was alleviated when I noticed small green buds had appeared at the shrub’s woody base.  Perhaps I still had a chance to save the plant.

       I decided the best thing I could do to save the shrub was to somehow prevent female spicebush swallowtails from laying their eggs on the few newly-sprouted leaves.  With that in mind, I have wrapped a small piece of bird netting around the base of the plant in hopes spicebush swallowtails will not be able to extend the tips of her abdomens through the netting far enough to lay their eggs on the new leaves; only time will tell whether or not my efforts will prove successful.  

 In the meantime I am checking the shrub daily to see if my efforts prove to be successful.  I also want to make sure a snake doesn’t become entangled in the netting.

If it works, I might just try to plant passionflower again.  In the meantime, I just wish butterflies would be a little more patient.

       If you have discovered a solution to this dilemma, please let me know.


       Interest in butterfly gardening is at an all time high throughout the Peach State.  At one time, his activity was one-dimensional. If a homeowner wanted to attract butterflies to their yard, they planted flowers that produced an abundance of nectar. However, in recent years butterfly gardening has taken on a new dimension. Nowadays people that are serious butterfly gardeners also incorporate butterfly larval host plants into their landscape designs.

       However, many homeowners do not realize that some of the trees growing in their yards are also butterfly host plants.  Here is a list of ten such trees and the butterflies that use them as hosts.

Eastern Red Cedar   Juniper Hairstreak

Yellow Poplar  – Eastern Tiger Swallowtail

Hackberry – Hackberry Emperor, Tawny Emperor, Question Mark, Mourning Cloak, American Snout

Sassafras  – Spicebush Swallowtail, Eastern Tiger Swallowtail, Palamedes Swallowtail

Redbud – Henry’s Elfin

Flowering Dogwood – Spring Azure

Willow – Viceroy

Winged Elm –  Question Mark

Water Oak – White M Hairstreak

Black Cherry – Eastern Tiger Swallowtail, Red-spotted Purple



This is the time of year when backyard wildlife enthusiasts are hard at work gardening for wildlife.  If you enjoy butterflies, you are probably sowing seeds or setting out plants that will attract these flying flowers.

For years, the goal of these efforts has been providing adult butterflies with dependable sources of nectar throughout as much of the year as possible.  Nowadays butterfly gardeners are also planting host plants for these beautiful insects.

Host (also called caterpillar) plants are the plants that provide food butterfly caterpillars.  While as a general rule, butterflies will eat nectar from a wide variety of sources, they only lay their eggs one a small number of plants. If a butterfly’s host plant(s) are not available in your yard or neighborhood, they will not lay their eggs there and your chances of seeing that particular species is reduced.

With that in mind, savvy butterfly gardeners are incorporating host plants into their gardens.  Fortunately, it is extremely easy to provide the host plants used by the black swallowtail.

Black swallowtails lay their eggs on plants that are members of the Apiaceae family, which includes Queen Anne’s lace, carrots, fennel, parsley, and celery.

If you go ahead and plant any of these species in your yard right now, you have an excellent chance of having them used by black swallowtails this year.

Here is a planting tip:  plant a bunch of whatever plants you choose.  If you don’t, should a female black swallowtail lay her eggs on your plantings, the voracious caterpillars could easily eat the plants up before they become established.


One of our most beautiful and reviled plants is Chinese wisteria.  Each spring this introduced woody vine produces large grape-like clusters of fragrant, violet-blue blossoms.  In many places throughout the state, Chinese wisteria vines climb to the tops of the trees.  When in bloom, these sinewy vines create cascades of flowers that can literally take your breath away.

When you gaze at the Chinese wisteria’s flora extravaganza, it is hard to believe that this plant has a dark side.  The truth of the matter is that the vine that has become part of the tapestry of spring in Georgia is so invasive that the harm it causes overshadows the delicate beauty of its flowers.

In many parts of the Peach State has become a serious pest since it is extremely prolific, hardy, and able to grow in a wide range of soil types.  Once it becomes established, it can literally smother the native plants growing nearby.  As a result, landowners spend thousands of dollars each year trying to eradicate this showy invader.

If you enjoy wisteria, but do not want to encourage such an unrelenting noxious plant in your yard, this native vine is a plant you should consider incorporating in your home landscape.  The plant I am referring to is American wisteria (Wisteria frutescens)This native woody vine is not invasive although it will climb on fences, small trees, and shrubs.  From April through August, it produces clusters of purple blossoms.  While they are not as large as those of the Chinese wisteria, American wisteria flowers are still beautiful.

If you are interested in butterflies, you will be pleased to know that it is the host plant for the zarucco duskywing, long-tailed, and silver-spotted skipper.



The zebra I am referring to are not the four-legged animals that live on the African plains.  The zebras I am talking about has six legs and can fly–the zebra swallowtail butterfly.

You would be hard pressed to mistake this butterfly with any other that inhabits the Peach State.  The zebra swallowtail’s wings displays a pattern of alternating distinctive black and white stripes.

The zebras I see at this time of the year are, on the average, smaller and have shorter tails than those I spot later in the year.

The zebra swallowtail can be seen throughout the state.  Depending on the weather, it can be seen somewhere in the Georgia from late February to early November. I especially enjoy watching them in the springtime flying through leafless hardwood forests seeking pawpaws.  The pawpaw is the host plant for this beautiful butterfly. Once a female find a pawpaw she will lay a single egg on the plant before moving on looking for another pawpaw.

I personally see more zebra swallowtails in early spring than at any other time of the year.  At that time of the year, few other butterflies are on the wing. However, for some reason, over the past few years I can count on one hand the number of times I have seen this butterfly during an entire calendar year.

Zebra swallowtails will nectar on a variety of flowers; however, they tend to shy away from tubular flowers such as coral honeysuckle. This is because they have a short proboscis and cannot reach nectar at the far end of a long, trumpet-shaped bloom.  In addition, they favor white flowers above all others.

If you have not seen a zebra swallowtail in your yard, it could very likely be because no pawpaws are growing nearby. If that is the case, you can easily remedy the situation by planting a few native pawpaws.  If you do, with a little luck, zebras will indeed be seen flying about your backyard.

2017 Spring Gardening Symposium

Are you interested in tips on attracting hummingbirds, butterflies, and other wild pollinators? Make plans to attend the Spring Gardening Symposium in Plains on May 5. I will be making a presentation entitled Inviting Butterflies To Your Backyard.

We hope you will join us for an exciting workshop on spring planting, pollinators, hummingbirds, planting demonstrations, and how to make a container garden. Lunch is included.

In addition to great speakers and demonstrations, we will have a plant sale featuring milkweeds, perennials, shrubs and trees that provide nectar and host for pollinators.

Details about speakers and registration forms are online at or


For the past several weeks, one of the most common butterflies in my backyard has been the red-banded hairstreak. Although, I expect to see this butterfly later in the year, it appeared earlier than normal in my Middle Georgia backyard. I suspect this is due to the abnormally warm weather that has dominated our weather this winter.


Although, this tiny butterfly (wingspan: 0.75-1″) is one of the smallest butterflies I see in my yard, it is every bit as beautiful as much larger butterflies such as the common buckeye.

The red-banded hairstreak can be spotted in backyards across the entire state.  It has several flights (generation) from as early as February, in the warmer regions of the state, through early November.

Like most of our butterflies, in between times when a flight is taking place, this tiny butterfly is sometimes hard to find. Then, suddenly you seem to see them everywhere.  With that in mind, if you are not able to find one in your backyard right now, before long you should spot one.

The red-banded hairstreak is light gray in color. From above they are drab gray. Fortunately, most of the time we see them with their wings closed.  As such, from below their wings are truly striking.  The butterfly’s gray underwings are accented by a jagged, red band that highlighted on the side toward the trailing edge of the wing with a slender black and broader white line.  Each underwing is equipped with two extremely thin, short tails.  One or more of these fragile tail filaments are often missing in older individuals.

For some odd reason, adult red-banded hairstreaks often gather atop trees in the late afternoon and evening.

This butterfly differs from most others because it lays its eggs in the dead leaves beneath its host plants (staghorn, fragrant, and winged sumac and wax myrtle).  Strangely, when the caterpillars hatch, they do not feed on the green leaves of its host plant, preferring instead to dine primarily on the decaying leaves found on the ground beneath the plant.





If are looking for a plant that will attract both hummingbirds and butterflies it would be hard to find a better plant than lantana. It is a hummingbird and butterfly magnet, prolific bloomer, withstands dry conditions, and requires little care.

From the time they begin blooming in late spring to well into the fall, lantanas produce a seemingly endless crop of flowers that contain nectar prized by ruby-throated hummingbirds and butterflies alike.

Believe it or not, there are more than 150 species of lantanas.  These hardy plants are native to both the African and New World tropics.  Some are shrubs that reach a height of six to 10 feet; others trail across the ground.  However, one trait they all share is that they have woody stems.

Throughout much of Georgia, lantanas are considered perennials.  Although their leaves and stems are killed by frost, their roots are often able to survive and sprout a new crop of stems and leave each spring.

With such a dizzying variety of lantanas to choose from, you are probably scratching your head trying to decide which is the best lantana for your yard.  While I have tried a number of varieties, the one I prefer is Miss Huff.  This variety can survive winter temperatures as low as 0˚F.  During the past four decades, the Miss Huff lantanas growing in my Middle Georgia yard temperatures have survived temperatures as low as 4˚F.  Other varieties do not do well at all when the thermometer dips into the 20s and below.

Miss Huff is a shrub. The largest Miss Huff that I have ever seen grows in front of the Georgia Nongame Wildlife Conservation Section office in Forsyth.  Each summer this giant reaches a height of five feet and measures more than 35 feet in diameter.

In late August, it is not uncommon to see 12-24 rubythroats dividing their time between the feeders hung around the porch of the office building and the lantana growing nearby.  At the same time, a couple of dozen butterflies are usually nectaring on the petite lantana blossoms.

Miss Huff sports orange and pink flowers arranged in tiny bouquets measuring less than two inches across.  Like most lantanas, its flowers change color as they age.

Other varieties of lantanas display blossoms that range from white and purple, yellow and orange, pink and magenta and rose and gold to solid colors like yellow, white, red and pink.

Plant breeders have developed a number of new varieties adorned with blooms in a kaleidoscope of colors.  Here is a short list of some of these newcomers: American red, confetti, cream carpet, gold mound, Irene, new gold, patriot rainbow, radiation and white lightning.

I should mention that, while some new varieties grow no more than two feet tall, they produce far less nectar than some of the older, taller types such as Miss Huff.

One thing that makes them a favorite among gardeners is that they require little care.  About all that you have to do is trim back the plant’s dead stems prior to the next growing season.

Lantanas are not plagued by a host of insect pests or diseases.

In addition, they require little water or fertilizer.  In fact, if they are watered them too frequently and/or treated to liberal doses of fertilizer, they tend to produce more leaves and stems and fewer flowers.

Lantanas will grow in both direct sunlight and partial shade. However, these hardy plants do best in open sunshine.

One of the few negatives associated with lantanas is that, in some places in South Georgia, some varieties will escape into the wild.  With that in mind, ask your county cooperative extension agent, or other gardening expert, which varieties should not be planted in your neck of the woods.

Whether your yard is large or small, lantanas deserve a place in your landscape. Once they become established, sit back and enjoy the beauty of the lantana flowers and the hummingbirds and butterflies that will frequent the nectar-rich lantana flowers.



FALCATE ORANGETIP – Anthocharis midea

FALCATE ORANGETIP - Anthocharis midea

This delicate, little butterfly prefers to live in open woodlands throughout the northern two-thirds of the state. It is also an uncommon backyard visitor anywhere from late February to early June. I see this species most often in Monroe County during March. It has only one flight per year so, if you don’t see it during the short time it is on the wing, you will have to wait until next year to enjoy its beauty.

The falcate orange tip has a wingspan of only 1.25 – 1.75 inches. The butterfly’s forewings are hooked and display a small black spot. Although the upper side of the wings is white, the tips of the male’s wings are orange. From below, this butterfly displays a marbled gray pattern.

The falcate orangetip’s host plants are members of the mustard family and include a number of plants including field peppergrass and rockcress.