Archive | March 2018


To generations of Georgians, and all of the other folks that consider the blossom of flowering dogwood to be a symbol of spring, it might come as a surprise to learn that an argument can be made the flowers of this iconic tree are not actually white.

       The experts base this claim on the fact that the creamy, white petals that are the focal point of one of Nature’s most beautiful floral creations are not petals at all.  These petal-like structures are technically bracts.  The tree’s small flowers form the greenish-yellow button-like structure located at the center of the bracts.

       Although, I know plant experts are correct in making a distinction between bracts and petals, I am also certain the most people will continue to believe flowering dogwood flowers are white and not yellow.



When most gardeners think about adding plants that provide nectar to hummingbirds to their gardens, often native plants are overlooked.

There are many reasons why natives are desirable additions to any garden.  These special plants help restore the diversity of native plants to the areas where they are planted. This is extremely important to the untold numbers of animals that depend on native plants for their survival. They are also as attractive as ornamentals, are often drought tolerant, more resistant to insect pests, and require little, if any pruning.

I hope you will add some of the 10 of the plants listed below to your garden.  Believe me, if you do, you will soon be wondering why you did not do so years ago.    

Bee Balm (Oswego Tea) (Monarda didyma) – Type of Plant – perennial; Height – 1 to 5 feet;  Blooms – June to September; Soil – moist to well drained;  Light – full sun to partial shade.


Buckeye, Red (Aesculus pavia) – Type of Plant – shrub or small tree; Height – 20+ feet;  Blooms – March to May;  Soil – well drained, moist soil types are best;  Light – partial shade to full sun.

Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis) – Type of Plant– short-lived perennial; Height – 1-8 feet; Blooms – midsummer; Soil – well-drained, moist to dry soil types;  Light – full sun to partial shade.

Columbine, Eastern (Aquilegia canadensis) – Type of Plant – short-lived perennial;  Height – 1-3 feet; Blooms – late winter to early spring; Soil – well drained, moist; Light – partial shade to partial sun.

Coral Honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens) – Type of Plant  – Perennial vine;  Length – 16 feet; Blooms – mainly March – September, will bloom throughout most of the year in some locales;  Soil – moist to dry soils; Light – full sun to light shade.

Horsemint (Monarda fistulosa) – Type of Plant  – perennial;  Height – 1 to 5 feet;  Blooms – June to September;  Soil – dry to well drained;  Light – partial shade to full sun.

Jewelweed  (Touch-Me-Not) (Impatiens capensis) – Type of Plant – Annual herb;  Height – 2 to 5 feet;  Blooms – May to October;  Soil – well drained, moist;  Light – shade to partial sun.

Redbud (Cercis canadensis) – Type of Plant -shrub to small tree;  Height –  up to 35 feet;  Blooms – late winter to early spring;  Soil – dry to well drained;  Light – partial shade to full sun.

Sage, Scarlet (Salvia coccinea)  – Type of Plant – Annual; Height – 2 to 3 feet;  Blooms – from late spring throughout the summer; Soil – dry to moist well drained; Light – full sun.

Trumpet Creeper (Hummingbird Vine) (Campsis radicans) – Type of Plant – woody vine;  Length – 36 or more feet; Blooms – summer;  Soil – moist to dry; Light – light shade to full sun.

Help Hummingbirds and Other Native Wildlife

If you are interested in helping hummingbirds, butterflies and other Georgia wildlife, earn certification in the Community Wildlife Project’s Hummingbird Haven and Gardening with Georgia Native Plants initiatives.  For more information contact:  Melissa Hayes at 478-994-1438 or


March is the month when ruby-throated hummingbirds begin appearing at backyard feeders across the Peach State.

Although most of folks have yet to see their first hummingbird of the year, there is no question the birds have already arrived.  The earliest report that I received came in from a couple that lives in Butler. Their first bird showed up March 16, drank on three different occasions, and then disappeared.

Over the years, rubythroats have commonly arrive at my Forsyth home March 18.  Full of anticipation of the arrival of my first bird of the year, I frequently checked my feeders throughout that special day.  Alas, my efforts were in vain.  Although, a hummer didn’t find its way to my Monroe County home on the 18th, one did show up at a couple’s home on the other side of the county.

In addition, a rubythroat made an appearance at the home of a couple in Bluffton on the 18th.  This bird seemingly vanished the same day.  However, on the 20th, their feeder was visited by three ruby-throated hummingbirds.

As I was writing this blog today (March 21), I looked out my office window and, low and behold, I saw a male ruby-throated hummingbird drinking nectar at a feeder hung nearby.  To say the least, seeing this long-awaited bird made my day.

When ruby-throated hummingbirds arrive in early spring, in spite of the fact many flowers are blooming, nectar is hard to find.  This is because, for the most part, early spring flowers produce meager amounts of nectar.  Consequently, hummingbird feeders can be an important source of food for these early migrants.  Our feeders enable these travel-weary, hungry birds with an easily obtainable source of food.  In just a few minutes, they can eat more food than they can visiting scores of flowers in a much longer period.

However, each year some of the hummingbirds’ biggest fans do not have feeders hanging in their yards when the first hummingbirds arrive. The first hummingbird they often see is one hovering in the spot where a hummingbird hung last year.  As a result, they guiltily scramble around preparing food for these tiny dynamos.

With that in mind, if you have procrastinated and not put out a feeder yet, do so as soon as possible.  I am sure you do not want to disappoint the birds that bring you so much enjoyment throughout the spring and summer.

When you do spot your first hummer of the season, let me know when and where you see both your first male and female ruby-throated hummingbirds of the year.





        Have you ever wondered why you don’t see many bumblebees in early spring?  In fact, in my case, when I spot my first large bee of the year, I automatically call it a bumblebee.   However, more often than not, the bee turns out to be a carpenter bee.  Unlike bumblebees, carpenter bees have shiny, hairless abdomens and frequently hover.

       The truth of the matter is very few bumblebees are flying about in early spring. It seems the only bumblebees we see at this time of the year are queens (fertilized females).  All of the other members of their colony died when the flowers disappeared the previous year.

       Queens are able to survive frigid temperatures is because a chemical called glycol flows through their bodies.  This substance prevents the bumblebees’ blood from freezing.

       Once spring arrives and temperatures rise, even a few degrees above freezing, the queens emerge.  When you do see them they are either trying of find flowers where they can consume much-needed food, or looking for burrows where they can lay their eggs and begin a new colony.  At times, they will even nest in above ground cavities such as bird nesting boxes.




       Interest in incorporating native plants into home landscapes has never been greater.  However, homeowners often tell me they want to plant natives in their yards; however, they simply cannot find them.

       Indeed, this is a problem in many areas in the state.  It seems most nurseries stock few, if any native plant.  However, there are nurseries that sell native when.  The problem is most people do not know who or where they are.

       In an effort to remedy this situation, I am creating a list of nurseries that sell plants native to Georgia.

       The first nursery on the list is Vincent Gardens (  This nursery is located in Douglas, Georgia. 

       While plants can be bought at the nursery, they do a brisk mail order business.

       When you visit their colorful and informative website, you will find scores of plants; most of these plants are native to Georgia.  Each plant has some value to wildlife.

       Most plants are illustrated with a color photo.  Accompanying the photo is a details description of the plant’s foliage type, hardiness zone, light preference, mature height and growth type, soil preference, blooming time, wildlife use, and whether or not it is a larval host plant.



       More than 350 species of birds are known to visit backyard feeders in North America.  Some 170 species regularly dine at feeders.       

       These astounding numbers were derived from data collected by the thousands of citizen scientists that have participated in Project FeederWatch.

       This ongoing study is sponsored by The Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Bird Studies Canada, The National Audubon Society, and The Canadian Nature Federation.

       How many species of birds do you feed at your feeders?


       A few weeks ago, I found a small patch of yellow crocus blooming in my yard.  A few days later, a handful of daffodils displayed their floral finery.  This was followed up with the blooming of a few narcissuses.  Whenever the blossoms of these hardy plants appear for the first time, each year I know that winter is loosening its icy grip on the land and spring is anxiously awaiting its chance to take center stage.

       This is also the time I begin thinking about bird boxes.  If this is the case with you, instead of putting up another nest box for bluebirds this year, why not erect one for Carolina chickadees?  They face a housing shortage too.

       I know that you are familiar with the Carolina chickadee.  This is the bird that is so proud of its name it constantly repeats it.  If you spend anytime outside in Georgia, you have heard the bird’s chick-a-dee-dee call

       The Carolina chickadee is a feathered sprite measuring only 4 ¼” long.  Its distinctive black cap and bib, gray wings and white underside are recognized by Georgians that have only a passing interest in birds.  This bird can be viewed without the aid of a pair of binoculars since it often allows us to approach within a few feet before flying away.  This is especially true when it visits our feeders.

       The Carolina chickadee is a cavity nester like woodpeckers, tufted titmice, eastern bluebirds, great crested flycatchers, and wood ducks.  As is the case with all birds that nest in cavities, with each passing year, they are finding it more difficult to find a place to nest and raise their young.

       In the case of the Carolina chickadee, it prefers to nest in natural  tree cavities and the abandoned nest sites of woodpeckers.  However, if they don’t find a cavity that suits their needs, they will either enlarge an existing nest site or fashion a new one.

       Homeowners can help alleviate this housing shortage in a couple of ways.  We can retain dead trees where they don’t pose a threat to humans or property.  However, since this isn’t always possible we can erect artificial nesting boxes for them.

       Most nesting boxes erected in the Peach State were built with bluebirds in mind. In comparison, very few boxes are crafted specifically for Carolina chickadees. Although, chickadees use the larger bluebird boxes, most of them are never used as chickadee nesting sites.

       One of the main reasons for this is Carolina chickadees and bluebirds prefer to nest in different places. Bluebirds like to nest in open spots.  On the other hand, chickadees prefer open woodlands and along woodland edges.

       If you have a yard that features scattered trees or borders a wooded tract, and would like to try to become a chickadee landlord this spring, erect a nest box among the hardwoods and pines.  Here you can erect either a bluebird box or a specially designed Carolina chickadee nesting box.

       A Carolina chickadee nesting box should have the following dimensions:  the interior floor should measure 4 inches by 4 inches, and a 1 1/8-inch entrance hole should be drilled in the front of the box 6 to 8 inches above the floor.

       The small entrance hole will prevent larger birds from competing with the chickadees for the use of the nest site. 

       Also, if you erect a bluebird box with an 1 ½-inch entrance hole or a chickadee box, install a steel hole guard around the entrance hole.  This will prevent flying or gray squirrels from enlarging the hole and ruining the box.

       Boxes should be erected on a metal pole 5 – 10 feet above the ground.  Equip each pole with a predator guard.  This will help ensure a pair of chickadees’ nesting attempt will not be in vain.

       This spring, should you happen to check a box housing a parent incubating eggs, don’t be alarmed when you lift the lid and hear what sounds like the hissing of a copperhead.  More than likely, you are hearing an alarm call being uttered by an incubating chickadee.  It is thought that the birds make this sound to deter nest predators.

       However, if you hear a buzzing sound coming from inside the box, you had better beware.  Bumblebees that typically nest in the ground occasionally build their nests in abandoned chickadee nests.

       I hope that you will offer free housing to a pair of chickadees this year. This backyard neighbor is an important member of a complex community of plants and animals that make our backyards such special places and they are fun to watch!