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MY BACKYARD MOCKINGBIRD IS FACING A DILEMMA

 My wife and I have made a concerted effort to incorporate a wide variety of wildlife food plants into our home landscape.  Our goal has always been to provide our wildlife neighbors with a wide variety of foods throughout the entire year.  For one reason or the other, we never set out any American beautyberry plants.  However, years ago we found one growing alongside a backyard fence.  I am certain a bird unknowingly dropped a seed there as it perched on the fence.  Since then from late summer into fall and sometimes-even winter, the plant has been festooned with bountiful crops of round, bright lavender berries (actually, they are drupes).  This forces a host of birds to make some difficult dining decisions.      

       This is particularly true of the mockingbird that patrols our backyard.  A few weeks ago, I spotted the bird, as it was swallowing pokeberries.  When I unwittingly interrupted its meal, the diner immediately flew to an American beautyberry growing some distance away.  Upon landing, while keeping a close eye on me, it commenced eating beautyberry after beautyberry.     

  Later in the day, I saw it again eating suet from a feeder hanging near my office.  Whenever it flew away from the suet, house finches, cardinals, and Carolina chickadees flew in to eat their share of the fatty food.  In just a few moments, the mockingbird reappeared and scared the interlopers away.  The mockingbird definitely did not want to share food with other birds.

       On previous occasions, I have witnessed the bird defend plants bearing pokeberries and beautyberries from the likes of thrashers, cardinals, gray catbirds, American robins, and towhees.

       Since it is impossible for a single bird to defend all three of these sources of food, throughout the entire day it is faced with the dilemma of deciding of what and when to eat.  The appearance of the American beautyberries simply acerbated this bird’s problem.  

                    Mockingbird & American Beautyberries

 

If you are like us and never got around to planting American beautyberry in your yard, don’t wait for a bird to plant it for you.  Take the initiative and plant one yourself.  This native shrub is easy to grow.  The only maintenance it requires is cutting the stems back each winter. 

       You will enjoy its strikingly colorful berries and experience the satisfaction of knowing you are helping feed a wide variety of birds and mammals.  In addition, you will find that you have created a dining dilemma for mockingbirds and other birds that relish its berries.  Believe me, that is not such a bad thing at all.

BACKYARD SECRET–BIRDS CAN GET DRUNK EATING POKEBERRIES

       Pokeberries are widely recognized as being a super food plant for birds.  Scores of birds including the likes of bluebirds, cardinals, tanagers, brown thrashers, hermit thrushes, quail, catbirds, and scores of others consume the plant’s large, juicy, purplish-black berries.  However, it is not common knowledge that birds can become intoxicated from eating the berries.

       This situation is most common late in the year when they eat pokeberries that have become fermented.  While fermented pokeberry juice will not kill them, it can definitely leave them addled enough to become susceptible to predators such as hawks and the family cat. 

       I must admit that, although each year the pokeberries growing in my yards are laden with berries, I have never seen a bird get drunk eating them.  Perhaps the reason for this is my wildlife neighbors gobble them up long before they have a chance to become fermented.

SPOTTING MIGRATING WARBLERS IN YOUR YARD CAN BE CHALLENGING

       As surprising as it may seem, late August and September can be a rewarding time to watch birds in your yard.  However, because it can be challenging the vast majority of the migrants that visit our yards on their fall migration are unnoticed.

       There are many reasons why this is true.  To begin with, most days it is sometimes difficult leave our cool houses and venture outside to look for them when more often than not the temperature hovers above 90 degrees and the humidity is so high the heat index soars well above 100.  It is also a hard to become motivated to go birding when throughout most of the day bird activity is well below what it was earlier in the year. 

       In addition, most of the warblers that visit our yards at this time of the year look nothing like the brilliantly colored warblers that pass through in the spring.  They have replaced their resplendent plumage with a cloak of drab feathers has prompted birders to refer to them as confusing fall warblers.

       To top it all off, those that make a rest stop in our yards rarely visit traditional bird feeders.  In fact, they are more apt to use a birdbath than a feeder.

       In spite of all of these obstacles, the folks that do venture outside to look for these long distance migrants are often rewarded with catching glimpses of an amazing array of warblers, vireos, and other songbirds.  If you want to join this group of hardy bird enthusiasts, you need to known when and where to look for them.

       The best time to search for these special birds is during the first couple of hours after the sun rises above the horizon.  The reason for this is they migrate at night and then rest and feed during the daylight hours.  Once they drop down in your yard, they begin foraging for food among the foliage that cloaks your shrubs and trees.  In essence, they are using our yards as rest stops in the same manner we pull off the highway and pull in to a gas station to refuel our cars and grab a bite to eat whenever we make a long distance trip.

       How long these feathered travelers stay is dependent on a number of factors such as the weather and the availability of food.  If food is abundant and the weather is suitable for flying, they may stay but a day or so.

       For the next several weeks, warblers and other songbirds will be passing through seemingly in waves.  As such, a yard might be full of migrants one day and devoid of them for the next several days.  Keep this in mind and do not become discouraged if you don’t see any migrants on your first effort.  During the next several weeks, untold numbers of these birds will be passing through backyards across the entire length of the state.

SULPHUR COSMOS – GREAT FOR HUMMINGBIRDS AND BUTTERFLIES

      Whenever my wife and I stumble across a plant that proves to be a great addition to our backyard wildlife gardens, we like to share our discovery with others.  One of our latest discoveries is sulphur cosmos (Cosmos sulphureous). 

       Over the years we have planted a number of different varieties of cosmos.  However, none of have proven to attract as many butterflies, hummingbirds and other pollinators as sulphur cosmos.  We have also found the flowers are popular with both bumblebees and carpenter bees. 

       As such, we have enjoyed watching these rotund pollinators land on cosmos blossoms and ride them downward toward the ground.

       We have planted sulphur cosmos in a couple of mass plantings.  However, it is purported to grow well in containers also.

       We have learned this annual is easy to grow.  We are growing them in moderately fertile clay soil.  However, the plant has the reputation of being able to grow in a variety of soils ranging from poor to fertile.

       The plant’s bright orange and yellow daisy like flowers are stunning.  Plants grow two to six feet tall (most of our plants reached a height of four to five feet).  The flowers last for a long time.  In addition, dead heading will prolong their bloom well into the fall.

       Our sulphur cosmos plants have been blooming for several weeks.  During that time, we have seen the blossoms visited by a host of pollinators such as ruby-throated hummingbirds, eastern tiger swallowtails, common buckeyes, checkered skippers, gulf fritillaries, cloudless sulphurs, sleepy oranges, monarchs, and others.  The most recent addition to the list of butterflies seen on the flowers was a giant swallowtail.  This butterfly is uncommon in our neck of the woods. 

       If you decide to incorporate this ornamental in your garden, I would be very surprised if doesn’t please you as much as it has us.

THE FALL WARBLER MIGRATION HAS BEGUN

       If you were to wait for the arrival of fall to see southbound warblers in your backyard, you would truly be disappointed.  When it comes to warblers, some them actually begin their fall migration in July.  It is also a fact that most of the warblers that pass through Georgia begin their journey south before the end of August.

       There are 47 species of warblers that nest throughout North America and winter in the Caribbean, Mexico, and points south.  Scores of these pass through the Peach State en route to their wintering grounds.  Remarkably, many of these birds can be spotted in our backyards during the summer.

       Here is a list of ten warblers that you might see visiting your birdbaths and feeding in the trees and shrubs gracing your yards this month: hooded warbler, American redstart, black-and-white warbler, yellow-throated warbler, Tennessee Warbler, Northern parula, Wilson’s warbler, magnolia warbler, bay-breasted warbler, and common yellowthroat.

THE CAROLINA SATYR IS A BACKYARD GHOST

      In spite of the fact that the Carolina satyr is one of the most common butterflies found in many Georgia backyards, its photograph rarely graces calendars or is featured in popular magazines.  Even in yards where it makes its home, since it almost never visits flowers, some homeowners do not realize it is there. 

       It prefers to live out its life in the moist, dark wooded spots where most flowering plants cannot live.  Even when is seen in its shady lair, it is often mistaken for a drab moth.  Indeed one could say it is our backyard ghost butterfly.

       The Carolina satyr is a small butterfly with a wingspan of only an inch to an inch and a half.  While it will never qualify as one of our most attractive butterflies, if you take the time to closely examine one resting on a dead leaf or twig, it quickly becomes apparent the pattern found on its ventral wings is quite attractive.

       Some have described the butterfly’s color as muddy brown; however, many field guides say it is light brown.  In fact, when the butterfly has its wings outstretched basking the sun; you can see the dorsal wings are devoid of any pattern.  Consequently, if you did not know what you were looking at, you would be scratching you head wondering what it the world you what it is.  Fortunately, for anybody trying to identify his or her first Carolina satyr, you do not often see a Carolina satyr in this pose.

       When we see one at rest, more often than not, it has its wings closed above its body.  In this position, the markings featured on the ventral side of the insect are clearly visible. Usually, the first things that catch your eye are the spots lining the trailing edge of the underwings.  The two largest spots are located in the bottom corner on the hindwing.  Each spot consists of a very small blue spot surrounded by a thick black ring.  In turn, this ring is rimmed in yellow.  Above these two prominent features, a series of smaller spots are positioned all the way to the tip of the wing.  These markings also have yellow rims.  A few will even have dark centers.  The underwings also feature two black traverse lines and dashes, respectively.

       Carolina satyrs are often seen fluttering about in shady woodlands, forest openings and nearby disturbed grassy areas.  They also do well in shady backyard settings. 

       Here they prefer to feed on tree sap, animal droppings and rotting fruit.  About the only time they are ever seen feeding at flowers is in late autumn.

       This is one butterfly that hugs the ground.  One observed flying more than a foot or so above the earth, is on a grand adventure.

       The Carolina satyr flight can be best described as slow and bouncy.  Those of us that watch butterflies appreciate the fact that Carolina satyrs rarely embark on extended flights.  As such, I have found that when I flush one in a shady spot, if I immediately stop and wait a few moments, the butterfly will often alight a short distance away.  This offers me the opportunity to take a glimpse of it through my binoculars or quickly snap a picture.

       Carolina satyrs are found throughout the state.  Depending upon where you live, you can see this delicate backyard ghost from late February until early November.

       If you and wondering whether or not these small butterflies are present in your yard, visit some of the shadier area of your yard.  Once there slowly walk about scanning the ground in front of you.  If you happen to catch the glimpse something slowly moving from place to place, more than likely you are not having a close encounter with something that goes bump in the night.  Instead you are probably looking at Georgia’s backyard ghost butterfly.

 

HOW MANY WORMS CAN A ROBIN EAT?

       We are all familiar with the old tongue twister that goes something like this, “How much wood would a woodchuck chuck, if a woodchuck could chuck wood?”  When I was a young boy I often wondered how much wood that would be.  Long ago I stopped wondering the answers to such whimsical questions.  Nowadays, I am intrigued by other mysteries such as how fast can a bird fly and how much food can a wild animal consume.  For example, I have long wondered how many earthworms an American robin can devour in a single day.

       Earthworms are an important component of the American robin’s diet. In fact, roughly 40 percent of the bird’s diet is comprised of earthworms.  Many of these earthworms are captured in our yards.  In fact, seeing a robin pulling a long worm out of the ground is a familiar sight in many yards across the state.

       As it turns out, robins are exceptionally skilled at hunting earthworms.  Remarkably robins have been found to capture upwards of 20 earthworms an hour. Another way to look at the American robin’s ability to pluck these slimy critters from the ground is illustrated by the fact that a single robin can eat up to fourteen feet of earthworms per day.       Wow!  I am impressed. 

HOARY EDGE OR SILVER-SPOTTED SKIPPER?

       Summer is a great time to watch butterflies.  Depending on where you live, coupled with the abundance and variety of nectar plants growing in your gardens, it is possible to spot 25 or more species of butterflies in a single day.  Currently, I am finding anywhere from 12-17 species a day.  It is relaxing to watch butterflies flying from flower to flower.  However, I find it even more satisfying when I can identify what I am looking at.  With that in mind, I thought I would offer you some tips that will help you tell the difference between two similar butterflies that are likely to be seen in your backyard.

       The two butterflies I am going to focus on are the hoary edge and silver-spotted skipper.  Both are overall dark in color and display patches of white on the undersides of their rear wings.

       In my neighborhood, my wife and I see the silver-spotted skipper far more often than the hoary edge.  However, it is not uncommon to find them feeding close to one another on the same plant.   

       Both butterflies are similar in size although the silver-spotted skipper is a bit larger with a wingspan that measures 1.75-2.40 inches in width.  In comparison, the hoary edge’s wingspan is 1.4-1.75″ wide.

       The feature that you can use to most easily tell whether you are looking at is a hoary edge or silver-spotted skipper is the position of the splash of white visible when the butterflies are perched with their wings closed.  The white patch of the hoary edge extends inward from the trailing edge of the wing.  To me, this frosty patch also seems to be somewhat smeared.

       In the case of the silver-spotted skipper, its underwing patch does not extend all the way to the rear edge of the wing.  Instead, it is situated near the center of the wing.  In addition, this patch takes on a bright silvery white hue.  Also, the outer edges of the patch are more clearly defined.   

THE HUMMINGBIRD’S ABILITY TO SELECT NECTAR-RICH BLOOMS

       August is a special month for both ruby-throated hummingbirds and those of us that enjoy watching them.  Throughout the entire month, the number of hummingbirds visiting our feeder swells as they voraciously feed on the nectar provided by our feeders and flowers.  The reason for this increased activity is these flying jewels must quickly eat enough food to enable them to store the fat required to fuel their long journey to their winter home.

       In order to accomplish this task, hummingbirds make frequent feeding forays to our feeders and as many flowers as possible.  Since hummingbirds have one the highest rates of metabolism known, they expend huge amounts of energy trying to prepare for their arduous migration.  Obviously, anything that makes this task more efficient greatly benefits these flying dynamos.

       One way the birds would be able to streamline their feeding binge would be to possess the ability to avoid visiting flowers that harbor little or no nectar.  Well, as amazing as it may seem, they can do just that.  Here is how it works.

       The amount of nectar produced by each nectar plant varies considerably throughout the day.  A number of variables such as soil moisture and weather conditions affect it.  When hummingbirds, butterflies, bees, wasps, and other nectar feeders consume nectar, it takes time for it to be replenished.  This time varies considerably.  For example, some flowers do so only once a day, others every half-hour, others varying amounts of time in between.

      Ruby-throated hummingbirds have the ability to learn how long it takes a flower to rejuvenate its supply of energy-rich nectar.  Consequently, when a rubythroat visits the zinnias, salvias, lantanas, bee balms, trumpet creepers, and the like growing in our hummingbird gardens they rapidly learn how long it takes each plant to produce a new crop of nectar.  Only then will they revisit a plant it fed at earlier in the day.  This eliminates the need to revisit the plant until correct amount of time has elapsed.

       This astounding ability has been demonstrated by researchers such as a team of University of Edinburg biologists.  Their experiments involved providing hummingbirds with two groups of artificial flowers laden with nectar.  One group of flowers was refilled with nectar every ten minutes.  The second group was replenished every 20 minutes.  In short order, the hummers learned when each group of flowers provided them with a source of food.

       Keep this in mind as you watch the hummingbirds visiting various flowers about your yard.  It will help you better understand why they feed at certain nectar plants when they do.  If you are like me, you will come away being even more impressed with a bird so small, ten could be mailed for the price of a first-class letter.

MOCKINGBIRDS DON’T LIKE TO SHARE

     Northern mockingbirds are common backyard residents throughout Georgia.  Unlike some of the birds, we see in our backyards, it is a permanent resident.  If you regularly see or hear a mockingbirds in your yard, it is safe to say your property is located within a mockingbird’s territory.  This means a mockingbird will try to keep other birds from its favorite food sources such as feeders.  Currently a mockingbird is defending my suet feeder.

       Consequently, the only time hairy and downy woodpeckers, cardinals, house finches, Carolina chickadees, brown headed nuthatches, tufted titmice and others an able to feed on the suet offered in a wire suet feeder is when the mockingbird is somewhere out of sight of the feeder.

       The only bird that doesn’t seem to be intimidated by the mockingbird is the brown thrasher.  I have never witnessed a mockingbird try to scare a brown thrasher away from a suet feeder; perhaps this because mockingbirds find thrashers too large and intimidating.

       Since I enjoy watching a variety of birds feeding in my feeding area, I have tried a couple of things remedy the situation. 

              MOCKINGBIRD AT SUET FEEDER

       For example, I purchased a suet feeder that was surrounded by hardware cloth cage. The suet feeder was positioned well away from the side of the cage.  While it allowed smaller birds such as brown-headed nuthatches, titmice, chickadees, and sparrows to slip through the opening in the hardware cloth and feed, it kept larger birds such as mockingbirds, cardinals, and woodpeckers away.

       My latest approach is to offer my backyard avian neighbors two suet feeders.  The theory is that it is impossible for one bird to defend more than one feeder.

       I began my experiment by placing another suet feeder within ten feet of the original feeder.  It didn’t take long for me to realize there the second feeder was positioned too close to the original feeder.  As such, the mockingbird kept other birds away from both feeders.

       I have since moved the second feeder some 30 feet away.  This seems to work fine, however, I now find it more difficult to watch and photograph birds visiting the second feeder.  That being the case, I need to begin moving the second feeder ever closer to the first feeder.  I am sure; at some point, the mockingbird will be able to defend both feeders.  Then I can move it back to a location just beyond that distance.

       Perhaps I do should go ahead a let the mockingbird defend a single suet feeder.  Since the bird cannot be near the feeder all of the time, I can enjoy seeing other birds dine to the suet during those times the mockingbird is elsewhere.  That may be best after all.   

       If you have come up with a great way to deal with an aggressive mockingbird trying to defend suet, mealworms, or fruit, I sure would like to know about it.