Goldenrod is one of our most gorgeous fall flowers. In addition to beauty, it is also a valued late season source of food for a wide variety of native pollinators including butterflies such as the monarch. While its virtues are indisputable, goldenrod is rarely considered a desirable garden plant. A primary reason for this it spreads and often grows extremely tall. However, I want to share with you tip that just might make you less inclined to pull up goldenrods that often crop up in gardens across the state.
More than 30 species of goldenrods are native to Georgia. As such, various species of the plan thrive in a variety of habitats. In addition, some goldenrods grow to be only a couple of feet tall while others can attain heights of eight feet or more.
Like many of you, goldenrods volunteer in our flower gardens every year. Obviously, the goldenrods growing in my yard are tall varieties. These plants easily top out at six to seven feet tall. This requires us to pull them up. If we don’t, they completely shroud other plants growing nearby.
This year my wife taught me, a trick that makes these lofty nectar plants easily managed. In August, she trimmed a few of goldenrods down to where their stalks were approximately a foot tall.
“Long-tailed skipper feeding on blooms produced by a goldenrod pruned in August.”
Each plants responded by developing three to four stems. As summer gave way to fall, the goldenrods growing along the edge of our property grew to be as tall as expected and produced golden plumes of flowers.
Their tiny flowers were visited by lots of bumblebees, some monarchs, and a variety of other pollinators. This feeding activity ceased a few weeks ago.
Meanwhile, the pruned goldenrods continued to grow eventually topping out at three feet tall and just recently produced their crop of flowers. These blossoms could not have come at a better time. Although many pollinators still are active in our yard, with each passing day, it is becoming more difficult for them to find nectar and pollen. Our pruned goldenrods are helping meet their need. In addition, they are extending the goldenrod’s floral show into late autumn. The bonus is we have found a way to include goldenrod in our nectar gardens. Wow! A well-time pruning can make huge difference.
Whenever butterfly migration is mentioned, the monarch comes to mind. However, while the monarch is undoubtedly our most famous butterfly migrant, a number of other butterflies also migrate. One of these butterflies is the ocola skipper and it is passing southward through our backyards right now.
The ocola is far from being our largest (wingspan: 1/5-1.75″) or most striking butterfly. It is best described as being elongated in shape and dark brown in color. Whenever I see one, it reminds me of a jet airplane. When it opens its wings, it displays a distinctive white arrowhead-shaped mark. However, from the side, is appears to be a nondescript small, slender butterfly. In addition, when its wings are closed, the butterfly’s light veins are distinctive.
Although the ocola can be seen in Georgia from late March into early November, it is most abundant in my yard in late summer and early fall. Currently the ocola is among the most common butterflies feeding on our flowers.
These distinctively shaped butterflies are feeding at a number of nectar plants including the butterfly bushes, cosmos, globe amaranth, and zinnias.
Oddly, there is mounting evidence that, for some unknown reason, some Ocala’s actually migrate north in the fall and show up in places such as Ontario, Canada and Massachusetts.
That being said, I believe it is safe to say that the destination of the ocolas we are currently seeing in our yards is Florida. In winter, they winter throughout the peninsula of the Sunshine State. Some even overwinter as far south as Key West.
Who would have ever imagined this small butterfly could successfully navigate such a monumental journey?
As any Georgia gardener knows, when it comes to producing nectar that attracts butterflies, not all plants are created equal. Based on my experience, one group of plants that is definitely in the group of those that produce little nectar is the traditional azaleas. Unlike our native wild azaleas, they are rarely visited by butterflies.
Over the years, my wife and I have planted our share of President Clay, George Taber, and Pride of Mobile Azaleas. For years, each spring they transform our yard into a floral wonderland. On occasion, I do see a few eastern tiger and pipevine swallowtails nectaring at their long trumpet shaped flowers. However, so few of these gossamer-winged beauties have attempted to feed on the azaleas blossoms, I would be remiss if I was to say they are butterfly nectar plants.
Several years ago, we set out a couple of Encore Azaleas. We planted them because the nurseryman guaranteed us they would bloom well after spring. To make a long story short, they have lived up to his guarantee. Consequently, they treat us to the stunning sight of azaleas blooming well after the blooms produced by our native and traditional azaleas have fallen and created colorful collars on the ground surrounding the shrubs.
A couple of weeks ago I noticed eastern tiger swallowtails and cloudless sulphurs visiting our Encore Azaleas. When I looked more closely, I found these butterflies were not basking on the plants; they were actually nectaring. Members of both butterfly species flew from flower to flower collecting nectar. This was not a onetime event. This activity has been going on for days.
Since I made this discovery, I have gone online to see if others have also seen butterflies nectaring at Encore Azaleas. Much to my surprise, many of the nurseries that sell Encore Azaleas tout them as butterfly magnets.
I wish I could say I have seen butterflies using our Encore Azaleas in past years, however, either this is the first year they have done so, or I just did not notice this behavior before.
There are scores of different varieties of this popular hybrid. However, I cannot tell which I planted in my yard. All I can say is this year; two of the showiest butterflies that grace our yard are regular visitors to our Encore Azaleas.
I would be interested to know if you have seen butterflies use Encore Azaleas. If you have, I would like to know which variety butterflies you have seen at the plants. In addition, if you would let me know what variety of Encore Azaleas are being used by the butterflies that would be great!
Whenever my wife and I stumble across a plant that proves to be a great addition to our backyard wildlife gardens, we like to share our discovery with others. One of our latest discoveries is sulphur cosmos (Cosmos sulphureous).
Over the years we have planted a number of different varieties of cosmos. However, none of have proven to attract as many butterflies, hummingbirds and other pollinators as sulphur cosmos. We have also found the flowers are popular with both bumblebees and carpenter bees.
As such, we have enjoyed watching these rotund pollinators land on cosmos blossoms and ride them downward toward the ground.
We have planted sulphur cosmos in a couple of mass plantings. However, it is purported to grow well in containers also.
We have learned this annual is easy to grow. We are growing them in moderately fertile clay soil. However, the plant has the reputation of being able to grow in a variety of soils ranging from poor to fertile.
The plant’s bright orange and yellow daisy like flowers are stunning. Plants grow two to six feet tall (most of our plants reached a height of four to five feet). The flowers last for a long time. In addition, dead heading will prolong their bloom well into the fall.
Our sulphur cosmos plants have been blooming for several weeks. During that time, we have seen the blossoms visited by a host of pollinators such as ruby-throated hummingbirds, eastern tiger swallowtails, common buckeyes, checkered skippers, gulf fritillaries, cloudless sulphurs, sleepy oranges, monarchs, and others. The most recent addition to the list of butterflies seen on the flowers was a giant swallowtail. This butterfly is uncommon in our neck of the woods.
If you decide to incorporate this ornamental in your garden, I would be very surprised if doesn’t please you as much as it has us.
One of the most common butterflies my wife and I are seeing in our backyard right now is the American lady (Vanessa virginianus).
The American lady is a medium sized butterfly with a wingspan that measures from 1.75 – 2.4 inches wide.
The American lady is a beautiful butterfly. From above the butterfly is reddish orange in color. Its forewings are bordered black. The tips of the forewings are also adorned with white spots.
The American lady is gorgeous regardless of whether you see it from above or below. However, I personally find it most attractive when it holds its wings above its body while feeding. When you look at the ventral side of the butterfly in this position the first thing that catches your eye are two large eyespots. The underside of the wings also features a complex pattern of creamy white lines that will immediately remind you of a spider web. What a combination!
The only butterfly that it can be confused with is the painted lady. Whereas there are a couple of subtle differences in the appearances of the painted lady and the American lady, the easiest way to separate the two is by counting the number of eyespots displayed on the trailing edge of the ventral side of the wings. The painted lady is decorated with four small eyespots whereas the American lady has but two large eyespots.
Depending on where you live in Georgia, you may see American ladies flying from late January into November. Folks residing in the southern half of the state see them earlier and later in the year than those living in North Georgia.
American ladies prefer to fly in open areas such as roadside, fields and meadows. Fortunately for us they are also commonly found in our backyards.
American ladies nectar at any a number of ornamental and native plants. However, in our backyard, they are primarily nectaring at coneflowers and Miss Huff lantana.
When you approach an American lady don’t be surprised if it flies away much sooner than an eastern tiger swallowtail. It is a bit skittish. However, if you stand motionless, often the American lady will soon return and land close by.
Among the host plants used by the American lady are cudweed, some asters, and pussy-toes.
If you want to ensure that butterflies, hummingbirds and other nectar feeders can find plenty of food in your backyard from late summer into fall, now is the time to sow a late crop of zinnias and Mexican sunflower seeds.
Currently the gardens of most Georgians that plant for pollinators are awash with color and food (pollen and nectar). However, by late September and October many of these same beautiful pollinator havens will be far less colorful and offer hummingbirds, butterflies and other pollinators less food. In spite of trying to prolong the blooming period of cut-and-come-again plants, the numbers of flowers being produced will often dwindle by late summer. Other flowers will have simply ended their blooming period and will not blossom until next year.
This situation can cause problems for all pollinators, including migrants making their way south on their fall migrations. This list of migrants includes several butterflies such as the monarch as well as ruby-throated hummingbirds.
One way you can assist these critters this year is to plant more zinnias and Mexican sunflowers. Since both plants require somewhere from 60-70 days to go from seed to flower, you need to plant seeds for these plants right now.
Both can be planted in beds. I can personally attest to the fact that zinnias also do extremely well in containers.
Since my wife and I have never planted Mexican sunflowers in containers, I don’t know how they do in that situation. I suspect because they grow so tall, they would more than likely require staking.
Last year my wife and I enjoyed great success planting a second crop of zinnias. They attracted many butterflies, including monarchs, and hummingbirds. In addition, they added needed splotches of late color to our gardens.
If you decide to try this practice, I think you will be pleased with the results. I know monarchs, ruby-throated hummingbirds, and scores of other pollinators will benefit from your efforts.
In my August 2, 2019 blog, I reported how American goldfinches ravaged the blossoms displayed by the zinnia plants growing in the large containers set on our deck. Watching the beautiful birds plucking the petals off the flowers and then gorging themselves on the seeds nestled at the base of the petals was so entertaining we were hoping the birds would return for another performance this year. Last week my wife found red zinnia petals littering the floor of the deck. Much to our delight, the birds have returned.
In 2019, we first observed this behavior in late July. It is interesting to note that this year my wife discovered the unmistakable evidence of the birds’ activities late in June. We cannot help but wonder why the birds are visiting the flowers so much earlier this year.
In addition, another mystery has emerged. While red, pink, white, and orange zinnias are blooming in the same containers, so far the birds are only eating the seeds of the red zinnias. Is this a coincidence? Who knows?
If zinnias are currently blooming on your deck or in your garden, keep your eyes peeled for zinnia petals scattered beneath the plants. If you find them, chances are, if you closely watch the plants, you will be able to witness this fascinating behavior.
If you don’t have zinnias growing in your backyard, it is not too late to plant some. Zinnias have plenty of time to blossom and provide goldfinches with a late summer banquet.
Over the years, my wife and I have been planting a diversity of nectar/pollen-producing plants in our gardens. This has been done in an effort to provide our backyard pollinators with sources of food throughout the year. This approach has offered us the opportunity to watch pollinators feed at a parade of plants from week to week as well as season to season. As the blossoms of one plant wither and die, pollinators redirect their attention to plants that are currently blooming. Right now, many of these pollinators are visiting mountain mint (Pycnanthemum sp.), one of the more recent additions to our landscape.
Mountain mint is a native perennial herb that grows two to three feet tall. Eight species of this hardy plant are found in the Southeast. Plants grow two to three tall. They exist in a variety of soil conditions, including the dry clay soil found in our yard. While the plant does best in moist soil types, it is drought tolerant. Mountain mint will grow in partial shade as well as full sun.
Mountain mint has a unique, eye-catching appearance. What makes this plant stand out is the fact that the leaves growing just below its flowers look like they have received a dusting of powdered sugar. In fact, to me, this foliage is far more attractive than the plant’s small white-purple blooms. In fact, these blossoms or so small you might overlook them if they were not arranged in clusters.
However, though mountain mint plants won’t win any awards for beauty, the fact that it blooms from June into October makes it an important source of food for wild pollinators.
Speaking of awards, in 2013 the Penn State Extension Service evaluated 88 pollinator-rewarding perennial plants for their importance to pollinators. At the end of the trial, mountain mint (P. muticum) received the highest rating for longevity of flowers, diversity of pollinators that use the plants, and the most insects attracted during the trials. In one trial, 76 insects visited the plants in just two minutes.
I am not surprised at these findings. When my wife and daughter found our mountain mint blooming a few days ago, they saw a stand of mint being visited by three species of butterflies (juniper hairstreak, red-banded hairstreak, and pearl crescent). They competed with the likes of thread-waisted wasps, hornets, and bumblebees.
One thing I like about mountain mint is that it is easy to grow. A friend gave us some mountain mint plants two summers ago. We set them out and kept them watered. The very next year the plants produced a crop of flowers.
If you like to create dried arrangements, you will love mountain mint. Each fall after the flowers have disappeared, you are left with scores of unique prickly, round, brown seed heads displayed on long stems.
Mountain mint is a plant that definitely deserves a place in your flower gardens.
My wife and I are always eager to try a plant that has the reputation of being a gorgeous ornamental as well as great hummingbird and/or butterfly plant. One such plant we have added to our gardens is Sweet William. Since Sweet William has long been a favorite of Georgia gardeners, I don’t know why we had not planted it before.
Sweet William is a member of the carnation family. It grows from five to 36 inches tall. The flowers are arranged in tightly packed bouquet-like clusters comprised of upwards of 30 or more blooms. The plants serrated petals ranging in color from purple to white, red, pink, or variegated. On top this, the plants easily hybridize and produce a wide variety of other color variations.
Sweet William blooms in the Peach State from late spring until the first autumn frost. During this blooming period, individual plants can be encouraged to continue producing blossoms by deadheading.
The old-fashioned garden favorite is native to Europe. Nobody knows for sure where the plant got its name. One of the most popular theories is it is named for England’s eighteenth century Prince William. Others suggest the floral beauty is named for William Shakespeare. I guess we will never know the answer to this quandary.
You can establish Sweet William in your garden from either seed or seedlings. If you plant seeds in spring to early summer, or set out plants in September or October, you will have to wait until the following spring to enjoy their showy blossoms. It you do not want to wait that long for the plant to blossom, you might want to consider buying plants and transplanting them to your garden soon after the spring’s last frost. In addition, if you sow seeds in the fall, they will germinate into plants that will bloom the following year.
I should mention, if you allow Sweet William plants to go to seed, they will readily reseed themselves. That being the case, they will quickly spread throughout a garden.
Sweet William will grow in a variety of soil types but seems to do best in well-drained, slightly alkaline soils.
In the spring of 2019, my wife sowed Sweet William seeds around one of our birdbaths. Only one plant produced a single flower last year. However, the plants overwintered and this spring (2020) rewarded us with an abundance of pink, red, and white blossoms.
For my wife, this floral show brought make memories of the Sweet Williams blooming in her grandmother’s garden years ago. In addition, they enabled me to take some stunning pictures of cardinals, thrashers and other birds visiting the birdbath to bathe and drink. The contrast between the birds’ plumage and the colorful flowers is stunning.
As for pollinators, as you can see from the accompanying picture, butterflies are already partaking in the nectar found in each Sweet William blossom. Hummingbirds and native bees have also been seen visiting the plants.
That being the case, this experimental planting seems to be a success.